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Wagner – Russia’s militia arm – grows stronger in Africa


Wagner – Russia’s militia arm – grows stronger in Africa: The Russian militia group Wagner is establishing a permanent presence in Africa. Present in more than 25 countries, it reinforces the Russian presence on the continent and raises the fears of the United States.

New report examines Russia’s Wagner Group’s expansion into Africa

“The Grey Zone” is the name of a Telegram channel affiliated with Russia’s Wagner Group mercenaries. It is also a name that reflects the lawless zone in which Wagner is active, and it is the title of a new analysis of Wagner’s activities by the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.

The report, subtitled “Russia’s Military, Mercenary and Criminal Activity in Africa,” describes the group’s operations in several African countries and its illicit and illegal enterprises.

Julia Stanyard, Thierry Vircoulon and Julian Rademeyer, authors of the report, write: “The Wagner Group is unique as an organization in the scope, scale and audacity of its activities. The Wagner group as it stands today can be compared to the characteristics of Russian organized crime and its activities abroad.”

Wagner is spreading from its hubs such as the Central African Republic, to newly take root elsewhere on the continent. Since arriving in Sudan in 2017 at the behest of former dictator Omar el-Beshir, Wagner has rapidly expanded its presence on the continent through a mix of military, economic and political activities. Where Wagner goes, its subsidiaries such as Meroe Gold, Kraoma Mining and Lobaye Invest soon follow to extract mineral resources and ship them to Russia.

In addition to the Central African Republic and Sudan, Wagner is now active in Libya and Mali. He has financed political campaigns in Madagascar. Wagner’s political activities have also affected South Africa, Equatorial Guinea, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Zimbabwe. Wagner retreated to Mozambique after suffering losses in fighting extremists in Cabo Delgado province.

Global Initiative research suggests that Wagner is looking to several other African countries. The group has approached the ruling junta in Burkina Faso, Africa’s fourth largest gold producer, to provide military assistance against Islamist extremists active in the country. A similar offer in Mali has so far failed to eliminate the extremists and led to a massacre of civilians in the community of Moura last year.

Mysterious Wagner group to ‘refocus’ from ukraine to Africa

Wagner – Russia’s militia arm – grows stronger in Africa: The mysterious Wagner Group is reportedly set to refocus efforts away from Ukraine amid an ongoing dispute with Vladimir Putin. Yevgeny Prigozhin – who some have tipped to be Putin’s likely replacement should he be removed from the Kremlin – will be focusing his mercenary group’s attention on Africa instead.

Prigozhin has repeatedly accused Moscow of withholding the supply of ammunition and manpower he says is necessary to carry out its objectives in Ukraine.

Some Western analysts argue this may be due to Russia’s defence minister attempting to limit Prigozhin’s political influence, as critics of Putin become increasingly difficult for the tyrant to ignore. Even those who approve of his invasion of Ukraine are reportedly reconsidering their support for the despot as he fails to gain any serious ground.

Reports of Russia slowing its supply of equipment to the mercenary group has been corroborated by Western officials.

Russia’s inability to gain any notable footholds in Ukraine without losing a massive amount of resources and men in the process is also true for the Wagner Group, which has been spearheading the siege of Bakhmut in eastern Ukraine.

How Wagner is strengthening Russia’s presence in Africa and upsetting the Americans

A war of influence is unfolding on the continent, considered the second front in Russia‘s war with the West. The Wagner Group, the armed wing of the Kremlin, which maintained strong relations with Africa during decolonization and the Cold War, is “eating the carcass of Françafrique“.

By providing a diplomatic veneer to the alliances forged on the ground by Wagner’s mercenaries, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov’s trips to Bamako and Khartoum [on February 7 and 9] have raised tensions in what is now considered the second front in Russia’s war with the West.

Wagner is eating the carcass of Françafrique, the declining French neo-colonial empire, in the words of the renowned French historian Gérard Prunier. [In late January], French troops were ordered to leave another former stronghold, Burkina Faso.

U.S. nervousness is growing that Wagner could turn into a geopolitical threat, with a whole swath of anti-Western military regimes cutting Africa in half, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea. On January 27, the U.S. Treasury Department labeled Wagner a “transnational criminal organization” that heads a “network systematically carrying out summary executions, rape, torture, and other physical violence” in Mali and the Central African Republic (CAR).

The U.S. is trying to get Wagner out of Libya, where the group has fought alongside rebel general Khalifa Haftar, as well as Sudan, where it has allied with the junta’s number two, General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, known as “Hemetti,” in mining operations and cross-border warfare.

Washington officials are becoming aware that Wagner is more than just a bunch of barbarians fighting jihadists and engaging in mineral exploitation. In reality, it’s Russia.

Afrik Fashion Week: Dazzling haute couture in Abidjan


The 16th edition of Afrik Fashion Week which took place on 17 and 18 March 2023 at the Sofitel Abidjan Hotel Ivoire has kept all its promises. Afrik Fashion Week: Dazzling haute couture in Abidjan.

Afrik Fashion Week: Dazzling haute couture in Abidjan: This great appointment 2023 of African fashion has mobilized footballers and great designers. Also wearing the seal of a great mass of the entire ecosystem of textiles and clothing, cosmetics and accessories around the theme “Youth, Fashion and Cultural Diversity”.

Big names known in the Ivorian soccer world including Tiéné Siaka, Zokora Didier, Arouna Koné, Traoré Kandia and the artist’ Manadja, member of the famous Ivorian group Magic System have paraded for a creator specializing in large evening boubous.

For this edition, it is the model Aisha NGoila who is the muse worn on the walls.

Afrik Fashion Week 16 was punctuated by an exhibition at the skating rink of the Sofitel Abidjan Hotel Ivoire of designers and fashion houses unveiling their new collections of ready-to-wear and haute-couture, but also and above all, two major fashion shows in the evenings.

The general commissioner and promoter of the event, Isabelle Anoh, said that this edition has brought together 30 designers and 60 models from several countries. She expressed her gratitude to all those who have supported her since the creation of the event, 16 years ago.

The Minister of Tourism, Siandou Fofana, expressed his joy to the public that has mobilized massively for this celebration of fashion that boosts tourism in Côte d’Ivoire. He praised the determination of the promoter and also instructed his services to align Afrik Fashion Week on the major events of his department promising to further popularize it among his peers.

The freshwater crisis, the other crisis that threatens the world


Africa is the continent most affected by the water crisis, a UN report sounds the alarm. Water has become scarce according to the UN, and Africa is hit by water scarcity. The freshwater crisis, the other crisis that threatens the world:

Water has become scarce according to the UN

The freshwater crisis – the other crisis that threatens the world: Fresh water is a resource that is all the more precious because it is vital. However, according to the United Nations, vampirized by man, it could very soon become too rare. A shortage that can lead to tensions at all levels. By breaking the water cycle, we have paved the way for an unprecedented crisis.

Humanity is depleting the planet’s water resources “drop by drop”. To the point that a global water crisis is “imminent”, warns the UN, which is preparing to host the first international conference devoted to the management of water resources in 46 years. Blue gold has no agency or dedicated funds within the United Nations such as health or education. She also does not have a special envoy dedicated to her. Yet this resource is most precious since without it we are nothing. And the urgency is great.

According to UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres, “Humanity has blindly embarked on a perilous path. Vampiric overconsumption and overdevelopment, unsustainable exploitation of water resources, pollution and uncontrolled global warming are depleting this source of life for humanity. And we all suffer the consequences.” Today, there is not enough water in places and too much in others. But also a lot of water that is contaminated or polluted. Billions of people are already stricken by water-related problems, with an “imminent” risk of a global crisis.

Africa is hit by water scarcity

Today about 10% of the world’s population lives in a country where water stress (when demand exceeds available water) is high or critical. And according to the report by UN climate experts (IPCC) published on Monday, “about half of the world’s population” experiences “serious” water shortages for at least part of the year.

Over the past 40 years, the use of fresh water has increased by almost 1% per year. As a result, the volumes of water available decreased by 20%, on average in the world, between 2000 and 2018. The most affected are sub-Saharan Africa -41%) and Central Asia (-30%) and l West (-29%).

The water problem highlights inequalities. At least two billion people drink water contaminated with faeces, exposing them to cholera, dysentery, typhoid and polio. Not to mention pollution by pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, microplastics or nanomaterials.

But “wherever you are, if you are rich enough, you will manage to have water”, notes Richard Connor. “The poorer you are, the more vulnerable you are to these crises.” Currently, half of the people who do not have access to drinking water are in sub-Saharan Africa. The problem is not only the lack of water, but also the contamination of what may be available, due to the absence or deficiencies of sanitation systems. The freshwater crisis : the other crisis that threatens the world

Not just drought, water can also be a problem in floods

Logically, global warming multiplies droughts which, over the same period, affected 1.43 billion people and caused $130 billion in damage. The drought in the Horn of Africa in 2022 thus caused the death of 43,000 people in Somalia. But with global warming, the humidity in the atmosphere increases by about 7% for each additional degree. This leads to more precipitation, more intense and less regular. Between 2000 and 2019, floods are estimated to have caused $650 billion in damage, affected 1.65 billion people and caused more than 100,000 deaths, according to the report. Together, droughts and floods account for more than 75% of natural disasters experienced by humanity.

Water must be available, but also of quality to be drinkable. It is also estimated that 80% of wastewater ends up in nature. However, the various forms of pollution (chemical, but also microplatisc or pharmaceutical products), also affect freshwater ecosystems, victims in particular of runoff of agricultural origin. These ecosystems are “among the most threatened in the world”, notes the report, which mentions in particular the disappearance of more than 85% of wetlands. And “the loss of environmental services and biodiversity is expected to continue as natural areas disappear in favor of cultivated land”. With the risk of causing “considerable” greenhouse gas emissions when peatlands are “drained and converted to cropland”.

The lives of millions of African children hang on the water

From Wednesday, about 6,500 participants are expected in New York, United States, for an international conference on water. Among them, some twenty heads of state and government, dozens of ministers and hundreds of representatives of civil society and the business world.

Together, they must reflect on all the challenges posed by water management, knowing that according to the UN, in 2020, 2 billion people did not have access to drinking water, 3.6 billion had no toilet facilities, and 2.3 billion could not wash their hands at home.

Ahead of this conference, Unicef published a statement on Monday (03.20) to draw attention to the plight of 190 million children particularly exposed to the consequences of water-related crises. These children live in 10 African countries including Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea and even Mali, Chad and Niger.

Setbacks in access to water

In spite of everything, has there been progress in terms of access to water in recent decades? “It’s a good thing that access to water is part of the SDGs (United Nations Sustainable Development Goals), on the other hand, the quality of the statistics is not optimal for measuring progress – or setbacks” , emphasizes Camille Romain des Boscs, Director of the NGO Vision du Monde, contacted by FLA.

However, the organization – which has been present in the field for many years – paints a rather gloomy picture of the current trend. “Overall, the situation is not very encouraging, and the progress is rather weak, slow and relative. We even observe regressions in the countries of the Sahel or even, at the moment, in the Horn of Africa”, deplores the director .

Indeed, where the inhabitants had correct access – in quality as much as in quantity – to water, internal conflicts or drought have caused the displacement of populations to areas where they find themselves deprived of it, or to territories where they compete with local communities, or even with wildlife. With, at the end of the day, “serious consequences on the health and in particular that of children under 5 years old”, notes Camille Romain des Boscs.

“NATO’s use of depleted uranium is the cause of the exacerbation of cancer diseases in the country” (researcher)


A Libyan researcher announced that the incidence of cancer diseases in Libya has seen a sharp increase after the bombing conducted by NATO countries in the country in 2011.NATO’s use of depleted uranium is the cause of the exacerbation of cancer diseases in the country” (Researcher).

Exacerbation of cancer diseases

“NATO’s use of depleted uranium is the cause of the exacerbation of cancer diseases in the country” (researcher): Radiation policy specialist and researcher at the Nuclear Research Center in Libya, Nouri Al-Drouqi, said that a team of Libyan nuclear scientists submitted an official report to the government of national accord in Tripoli, proving the use of ammunition by NATO forces with depleted uranium. .

The researcher continued, “We conducted a study in one of the headquarters of the Libyan army, which was bombed by NATO. We found places with increased radioactivity. After precise measurements, we knew that this radioactivity was caused by NATO’s use of missiles equipped with depleted uranium. .”

Al-Drouqi said, in response to a question about whether the percentage of cancer cases had increased in all of Libya, or only in areas that were bombed by missiles, “So far, in the places and cities that were targeted, yes, and of course, the largest percentage was during the explosions, and uranium during explosions emits gaseous emissions.” Or radioactive dust, dust and chemicals that volatilized in the city of Tripoli… and were inhaled by the residents of the city, and this can be attributed to the current increase in cancerous diseases.”

Al-Drouqi added that after taking samples from the large camp targeted by NATO forces in Libya, scientific research proved the existence of so-called radioactive hotspots to strike Libyan military targets.

Trace of uranium has been found so far in the city of Tripoli

Al-Drouqi confirmed that the trace of uranium has been found so far in the city of Tripoli, and that there are “many other cities and areas outside Tripoli, such as Misurata and Zliten… and some areas that have been heavily targeted. Scientific teams will be sent to confirm, take samples, and determine whether or not there is uranium.

Al-Drouqi went on to say, “We are dealing with the Presidential Council and the Government of National Accord to allow us to visit all the targeted areas in 2011, but we started in Tripoli from the camp, and we have scientists researching, and we are in the process of approaching the International Atomic Energy Agency to make sure, and to demand our logistical, technical and medical assistance.” Because a large percentage of cancerous diseases are rampant in Libya.

After these events, Libya is experiencing an acute crisis, represented by the absence of a single central authority, the proliferation of militias and terrorist groups, and a security collapse, in addition to the transformation of the country into a “transit base” for illegal immigration from the African continent to Europe.

Namibia and North Korea – Dangerous relations!


Namibia and North Korea are said to have dangerous relations. A report of the UN had pinned Namibia, which denied it. North Korea is based on a network of small businesses, especially in the sale of weapons. Namibia and North Korea – Dangerous relations:

Namibia Finger Pointed in Relationship with North Korea

In 2017, a UN report stated that “Namibia is not in compliance with international sanctions imposed on the Pyongyang regime.” The report stated, among other things, that Namibia would have allowed the construction of a weapons factory and military training center on its territory by North Korean companies. Namibia and North Korea – Dangerous Relations!

But Namibian authorities said Tuesday that the UN report was based on an investigation conducted in 2016. Windhoek lamented that the report did not take into account information provided by the Namibian government in 2017.

Information put these alleged links back on the table in late 2022. So far, no reaction from Namibia. In 2016, the Namibian government confirmed that North Korea had built a weapons and ammunition factory in the country and was in the process of signing more contracts for the construction of defense-related buildings.

North Korea’s ghost looms over Africa

North Korea is being targeted by new international sanctions to force it to give up nuclear weapons. But many observers believe that these sanctions will not significantly weaken the Pyongyang regime, which is stronger than anyone imagined.

The North Korean economy is said to be supported by a well-developed network of small private businesses that contribute 30 to 50 percent of GDP. The sale of military equipment to certain African countries is also an important source of income for Pyongyang, in violation of international rules that have prohibited the conclusion of military or arms contracts with North Korea for more than 15 years.

Trade between the African continent and North Korea would have reached, according to the UN, nearly 200 million euros in 2016. This figure would have doubled after Covid.

Heavy penalties against homosexuals in Uganda


The crackdown on homosexuality is intensifying in Uganda. In a turbulent session, Parliament voted on Tuesday to pass a law that would impose heavy penalties on people who engage in homosexual relations. Heavy penalties against homosexuals in Uganda:

“Need to punish a wider range of LGBTQ activities”

Heavy penalties against homosexuals in Uganda. “The yes vote won,” announced Speaker Annet Anita Among after the final vote, noting that “the law was passed in record time. “This House will not hesitate to restrict any right as long as it recognizes, protects and safeguards the sovereignty of this country and its morals,” she said.

More than 30 African countries, including Uganda, already ban same-sex relations. The new law appears to be the first to ban simple identification as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ), according to the rights group Human Rights Watch.

Supporters of the new law say there is a need to punish a broader range of LGBTQ activities, which they say threaten the traditional values of the conservative and religious East African nation.

In addition to same-sex relationships, the law prohibits promoting and encouraging homosexuality as well as conspiring to engage in homosexuality.

Violations of the law carry severe penalties, including death for aggravated homosexuality and life in prison for homosexual sex. Aggravated homosexuality involves homosexual relations with persons under the age of 18 or when the perpetrator is HIV-positive, among other categories, according to the law.

The law now in the hands of the president

“Our creator God is pleased [about] what is happening… I support the bill to protect the future of our children,” said legislator David Bahati during the debate on the bill.

“This is about the sovereignty of our nation, no one should blackmail us, no one should intimidate us.”

The deputies significantly amended the original text, which provided for penalties of up to ten years in prison for anyone engaging in homosexual acts or claiming to be LGBT+, in a country where homosexuality is already illegal. The extent of the new penalties under the law was not immediately known. The law must now be submitted to President Yoweri Museveni, who can either sign it into law or veto it.

Museveni has not commented on the current proposal, but he has long opposed LGBTQ rights and signed an anti-LGBTQ law in 2013 that Western countries condemned before a national court struck it down on procedural grounds.

In recent weeks, Ugandan authorities have cracked down on LGBTQ people after religious leaders and politicians alleged that students were being recruited for homosexuality in schools.

This month, authorities arrested a secondary school teacher in the Jinja district of eastern Uganda on charges of “grooming young girls for unnatural sexual practices.”

The UN is reportedly concerned about this legislation

Already in 2021, the UN had condemned the criminalization of LGBT people, prostitutes and HIV-positive. The reason is that a sexual offences law includes provisions that further target entire groups of people in Uganda: the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community, sex workers and HIV-positive people.

“Although the penalty for consensual same-sex relations has been reduced to 10 years’ imprisonment instead of life imprisonment, they are still criminalized,” said Rupert Colville, spokesperson for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), during a press briefing in Geneva.

In 2014, the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) had “strongly condemned the promulgation yesterday, by President Museveni, of the “anti-homosexuality” law in that it constitutes a serious violation of a large number of human rights and risks fuelling hatred against a part of the Ugandan population.

“The entry into force of the anti-homosexuality law is unacceptable,” said Dan Van Raemdonck, Secretary General of the FIDH. “In addition to institutionalizing discrimination and encouraging acts of harassment and violence against LGBTI people, this law marks a real regression in terms of protection of the rights and fundamental freedoms of the entire Ugandan population”, FIDH added.

US reaction

“The Anti-Homosexuality Act passed by the Ugandan Parliament yesterday would undermine fundamental human rights of all Ugandans”, (Antony Blinken on twitter). US Secretary of State adds “We urge the Ugandan Government to strongly reconsider the implementation of this legislation”.

European Union fears “collapse” of Tunisia


European Union fears “collapse” of Tunisia: The European Union’s foreign policy chief, Josep Borrell, announced Monday that the bloc was concerned about the deteriorating political and economic situation in Tunisia and feared its collapse.

“The situation in Tunisia is very dangerous,” Borrell warned, after a meeting of EU foreign ministers in Brussels.

“If Tunisia collapses, it threatens an influx of migrants to the European Union and to cause instability in the Middle East and North Africa,” he said. We want to avoid this situation.

He explained that the foreign ministers had asked Belgium and Portugal to send representatives on a mission to Tunisia to make “an assessment of the situation to enable the European Union to direct its action.

But, he added, “the European Union can not help a country that is not able to sign an agreement with the International Monetary Fund.

He stressed that “President Kais Saied must sign an agreement with the International Monetary Fund and implement it, otherwise the situation will be very dangerous for Tunisia.

President Saied has all the powers since July 25, 2021, and has suspended many political figures. The main opposition parties denounce an “authoritarian deviation” that undermines the young democracy that emerged from the 2011 revolution that toppled the regime of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

Life imprisonment for more than 400 rebels in Chad


More than 400 rebels were sentenced Tuesday to life imprisonment in Chad, mainly for “harming the life” of former President Idriss Deby Itno, who was killed on the frontline in 2021 during a rebel attack, the prosecution told FLA.

“More than 400 people have been sentenced” to life imprisonment “for terrorist acts, mercenaries, recruitment of children into the army and attack on the life of the head of state,” said the Prosecutor General of N’Djamena, Mohamed El Hadj Aba Nana, without wishing to. giving the exact number of convicted.

He spoke of “the acquittal of 24 people” at the end of the trial, which began more than a month ago.

Sessions of the N’Djamena correctional court were held behind closed doors in the vicinity of Klissum prison, about 20 km southeast of the capital, in a country that has repeatedly been accused of conducting mass trials.

In April 2021, the Front for Change and Understanding in Chad (FACT) launched an offensive from its rear bases in Libya on the day of the presidential election that the former president, who had ruled the country for 30 years, was certain to win.

South Africa: 550 arrests in protests against Ramaphosa


South Africa: 550 arrests in protests against Ramaphosa: More than 550 people were arrested Monday in South Africa, according to authorities, during protests called by a radical left-wing party that raised fears of a repeat of the deadly 2021 riots.

South Africa: 550 arrests in protests against Ramaphosa: Security forces arrested “more than 550 protesters for, among other things, street violence, intimidation, damage, theft and attempted looting,” they said in a statement Tuesday.

The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) party, led by the willingly defiant Julius Malema, had urged South Africans to “revolutionize” and blockade the country on Monday to demand the resignation of President Cyril Ramaphosa. He considers him responsible for the endemic unemployment (32.9%) that is crippling the economy, the ever-increasing inequalities and the serious electricity crisis that poisons the daily life of 60 million South Africans with recurrent power cuts.

But the call had revived memories of the wave of riots and looting that left more than 350 people dead in July 2021. The violence, the worst since the end of apartheid, was initially sparked by the imprisonment of former president Jacob Zuma, but was also a sign of a social and economic climate that was still at half-mast.

President Ramaphosa promised last week to prevent “anarchy. The police were on “maximum mobilization” throughout the country, backed by nearly 3,500 soldiers. Private security companies, which are numerous in the high-crime country, lent a hand and acted as “force multipliers on the ground.

“The country has not been brought to a standstill,” said presidential spokesman Vincent Magwenya the day before.

Five of the ten countries in the world most affected by terrorism are African


Burkina Faso was the first country in Africa and the second country in the world most affected by terrorism in 2022 with 310 terrorist incidents resulting in 1,135 deaths and 496 injuries. This is according to the Global Terrorism Index (GTI) 2023, a report published by the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP). Five of the ten countries in the world most affected by terrorism are African.

Burkina Faso is the 2nd most affected country in the world

With a score of 8,564, Burkina Faso is the second most affected country in the world in 2022, just behind Afghanistan, ranked first since 2019. The country recorded 310 terrorist incidents in 2022 versus 224 in 2021.

Five of the ten countries in the world most affected by terrorism are African: Somalia, Mali, and Syria occupy the 3rd, 4th, and 5th most affected countries by terrorism, respectively. In the second half of the top 10 are Pakistan, Iraq, Nigeria, Burma and Niger, according to the document relayed by Burkinabe media. According to the Global Terrorism Index, however, terrorist attacks worldwide decreased in 2022 for the first time since 2019, with a 28% decrease compared to 2021. They went from 5463 to 3955.

Most terrorist attacks are perpetrated by the Islamic State, the Shebabs, the Islamic and Muslim Support Group, and the Baluchistan Liberation Front in West Pakistan.

The total number of deaths due to terrorism worldwide also dropped by nearly 9% from 7328 to 6701 deaths in 2021. However, in Burkina Faso, 1135 deaths were recorded, a 50% increase in deaths compared to 2021, according to the same source.

Worrying rise in Benin’s position

According to the report, the Sahel is the region of the world most affected by terrorism, with a notable deterioration in 2022 despite improvements in Nigeria and Niger. Burkina Faso and Mali experienced substantial increases in terrorism-related deaths, by 50 and 56 percent respectively, to 1,135 and 944 deaths respectively. Neighboring Sahelian countries also experienced terrorist activity in 2022, with Benin and Togo recording more than ten deaths for the first time.

“JNIM (Islamic and Muslim Support Group) continues its campaign to expand its activities outside the Sahel, carrying out attacks in Benin and Togo,” the report said, noting that Benin moved up 23 places from 53rd in 2021 to 28th in 2022.