Sudanese refugee crisis

Sudanese refugee crisis: Fighting between regular army and paramilitary rapid intervention forces has dangerous human consequences. Hundreds of thousands of refugees!

Sudanese refugee crisis

Deadly fighting in Sudan has displaced more than 330,000 people inside the country, and another 100,000 have already fled to countries in the region, the United Nations reported on Tuesday, May 2. In all, “more than 800,000 people” could flee the country, the UN estimates.

The 2023 Sudanese refugee crisis began in Africa in mid-April 2023 after the outbreak of the 2023 Sudanese conflict. By May 12, 2023, over 200,000 people had fled the country and over a million had been internally displaced.

These included diplomats, citizens and foreign nationals from countries such as Somalia, Eritrea, Brazil, the USA, the UK, Kenya and Uganda. Thousands more were displaced, mainly from Khartoum.

Sudanese refugee crisis

On April 24, 2023, several countries, including Chad and South Sudan, reported the presence of several thousand civilians, some arriving by bus, car or on foot in extremely dangerous conditions.

In Chad, the situation is critical

Sudanese refugee crisis

The influx of Sudanese refugees entering Chad, 80% of whom are women and children, has been happening so fast that it’s testing international efforts to provide them with shelter, food and drinking water.

Ali Salam, a Chadian-American working with the Sudanese Association of American Physicians (SAPA), tells the Guardian that conditions in a refugee camp in Koufroun are “overwhelming”.

The rainy season, which starts at the end of June, will turn the region’s dirt roads into mudslides, further complicating the delivery of aid to those in need, and causing a rise in cases of malaria and other diseases, according to aid agencies.

“We know we won’t be able to relocate them all before the rainy season,” Pierre Kremer of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) tells Reuters. “We run the risk of a major humanitarian catastrophe in this region.

Disastrous economic situation

Chad, a landlocked country, depends on Sudan for access to international markets for foodstuffs, refined oil products and other imports. The fighting has complicated this system, exacerbating the fuel shortages that began in early March and driving up food prices.

According to the Observatory for Economic Complexity, the closure of the border with Sudan has caused prices to rise by up to 70%. In Chad’s capital, high inflation has caused major problems for shopkeepers and their customers alike, as the economic fallout from the fighting in Sudan influences the price of everything, including the red tea prized by Chadians.

Chad requests international aid

On Saturday June 24, Chad, where tens of thousands of new refugees are fleeing the war in Sudan, called for “massive aid” from the international community, which it accuses of “leaving it almost alone” in the face of an “unprecedented” humanitarian crisis.

Prime Minister Saleh Kebzabo told diplomats and representatives of international organizations on Saturday that “the mobilization of the international community (…) is not on a par with the mobilization seen elsewhere, leaving Chad almost alone in the face of hosting refugees, while exhausting its own resources to the maximum”.

Sudanese refugees between a rock and a hard place in the Central African Republic

For the past eight weeks, Sudan’s civil war has been turning the country upside down. Fleeing the fighting in Darfur, ten thousand refugees have taken refuge in the north of the Central African Republic.

While the fate of these shipwrecked warriors has caused a stir, more than 10,000 people have found themselves in an even more precarious situation in Amdafock. This small Central African village on the border with Darfur has been the scene of a drama behind closed doors since mid-April.

Sudanese refugee crisis

Life here is hard. No water, no electricity, no shelter for those shipwrecked – mostly women, children and the elderly – by the violence that continues to shake neighboring Darfur, bringing in hundreds of new arrivals every day.

Humanitarian assistance to date has been insufficient to cope with the influx. Bandits and armed groups lurk nearby. The security stakes are high. Here, the border only exists on paper, and with the exception of a few undermanned peacekeepers, no one is protecting the locality. At the end of May, the vehicle of an international NGO was attacked on the road, killing one person.

Egypt: government restricts entry conditions for Sudanese refugees

Sudanese refugee crisis

Egypt is tightening entry formalities for Sudanese nationals. Their country has been torn apart for almost two months by a deadly war that has led to a serious humanitarian crisis.

In a statement published on Sunday June 11, the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced new procedures. The aim is to “establish a regulatory framework for the entry of Sudanese brothers into Egypt after more than 50 days of crisis” in their country.

Egypt has welcomed more than 200,000 Sudanese citizens since the start of the crisis” two months ago, according to local authorities. They add that these recently arrived refugees “are in addition to the five million Sudanese citizens already present in the country before the war”.

These restrictive measures are not intended to “prevent or limit the number of Sudanese citizens entering” Egyptian territory, but rather to put an end to the “illegal activities of individuals and groups on the Sudanese side of the border, who falsify entry visas” for profit, explains the statement.

Darfur again threatened by “ethnic cleansing

Both the United Nations and human rights organizations have been warning in recent weeks of the proliferation of attacks in the region against civilians based on their ethnicity.

The international organization’s special representative for Sudan, Volker Perthes, recently warned that some of these attacks could potentially constitute “crimes against humanity”.

The New York Times recently reported, based on the testimony of refugee survivors in Chad, that snipers had been positioned to shoot down fleeing civilians.

On Tuesday, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) expressed its alarm at the situation in Darfur, pointing out that the fighting was intensifying and that “the ethnic dimension seen in the past is unfortunately returning”.

A crisis that drags on

The conflict in Sudan could join the long list of forgotten regional and international crises. A number of factors support this hypothesis, which is not to everyone’s displeasure. Firstly, the unbridled nature of the parties to the conflict, dominated by the desire for revenge and the quest for a decisive military victory over the two generals, who do not seem to have any intention of ceasing their actions, at least in the foreseeable future.

These crimes against civilian facilities such as airports, hospitals, schools, water points and the like are not the only evidence of the disaster that has befallen Sudan. The worst has been confirmed, especially after the collapse of the ceasefire and the suspension of talks in Jeddah announced by the Saudi and American mediators, accusing both sides of failing to respect the ceasefire and hindering aid and appeasement measures.

The perpetuation of the conflict in Sudan risks extending the fighting scenario beyond the country’s major cities. It could spread to other regions and neighboring countries, exacerbating existing insecurity and the causes of tension and conflict. The result would be humanitarian crises and a wave of refugees, outstripping the capacity of countries in the region to cope with such challenges.

Repression of journalists in Tunisia worries the UN

Repression against journalists in Tunisia worries the UN: Since Tunisia voluntarily aligned itself with Algeria in exchange for gas, democracy has suffered an alarming setback, jeopardizing the achievements of the Arab Spring. This situation has led the UN Human Rights Office to strongly condemn the repression of journalists in the country.

Repression of journalists in Tunisia worries the UN

Like Algeria, Tunisia has adopted legislation that treats independent journalism as a criminal act, thereby silencing criticism of the authorities.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Volker Türk, expressed his concern at this situation, declaring: “It is worrying to see that Tunisia, a country that once held out so much hope, has regressed and lost the human rights gains of the last decade.”

According to him, the repression that had previously targeted judges, politicians, union leaders, businessmen and civil society actors, has now spread to target independent journalists, who are constantly harassed and prevented from carrying out their work. The High Commissioner called on Tunisia to change course.

Like Algeria, Tunisia uses anti-terrorist legislation to silence independent journalistic voices.

The United Nations Human Rights Office in Tunisia has documented twenty-one cases of alleged human rights violations against journalists since July 2021, including prosecutions before civilian and military courts, according to Volker Türk.

Human rights on the wane in President Saied’s Tunisia

The silence imposed on journalists in a coordinated effort undermines the crucial and necessary role of independent media and has a corrosive effect on society as a whole, he stressed.

Last April, after a series of arbitrary arrests and false accusations against outspoken journalists, Algeria decided to institutionalize its repression of freedom of expression by drafting a law that transforms media silence into a legal procedure.

Last febrary, dozens of Tunisian journalists and rights activists demonstrated in the streets of the capital, Tunis, to denounce “state repression” and attempts to intimidate the media.

The protest, organised by a journalists’ union, SNJT, came three days after police arrested Noureddine Boutar, the director of a popular private radio station, Mosaïque FM.

Boutar is one of 10 public figures arrested since Saturday, mainly critics of President Kais Saied, including members of the Islamist-inspired Ennahdha party.

“The authorities, at all levels including the president and the prime minister, are seeking to repress press freedom and there are many indicators that prove this, such as military trials, decree-law no. 54, allegations over editorial outlines and other practises”, denounced Amira Mohamed, vice-president of the SNJT journalists’ union.

Turkey positions itself in Africa

Turkey positions itself in Africa: charitable, cultural, economic and now security diplomacy … The Euro-Asian country consolidates its position as a partner in Africa.

Turkey positions itself in Africa

Indeed, Turkey is not to be outdone in the economic powers‘ struggle for influence on the African continent. The country is positioning itself as an alternative partner to the former European colonial powers.

A strategy that is paying off: outgoing President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his investments are welcomed with open arms in many African countries.

Trade with Africa has increased by 4.4% in 20 years, and now accounts for 9.4% of Turkey’s exports.

Turkish furniture, for example, is uncompetitive in Europe but successful in Nigeria. And Turkey has become an attractive trading partner for West African countries, which prefer it to France because of its colonial past.

“Ultimately, Turkey is seeking to diversify its partnerships and international relations, and to conquer new markets”, says Alex Vines, director of the Africa program at London-based think tank Chattam House.

According to him, “this is also one of the main thrusts of the policy developed over the last twenty years”.

Turkey’s African strategy is not just about trade. It ranges from “soft power” with educational and social establishments or media projects, to infrastructure projects and humanitarian aid against famine in Somalia.

Turkish construction companies are well established in building roads, bridges, railroads, airports and mosques in Africa.

In return, the continent is becoming an increasingly important supplier of energy and raw materials for Turkey. Algeria, for example, is Turkey’s fourth-largest energy supplier.

“Turkey Days” will be organized in 4 countries between July and September

Under the slogan “Experience Turkey in Africa”, Turkey Days in Africa will take place for the first time in several West African countries.

Organized by Grevents World, under the aegis of DEIK and in partnership with several Turkish institutions including Maarif, TIKA and the Yunus Emre Institute, these days will aim to “raise awareness of Turkish culture and language”, Zeki Guvercin, Chairman of the Board of Directors of “Türkiye days Expo 2023”.

According to Guvercin, these days will also help “strengthen cooperation between Turkey and West Africa”, while “increasing trade relations”.

The days will take place on different dates in 4 West African countries. The inauguration will take place on July 22-23 in Senegal, followed by September 20-21 in Benin. Two days later, Togo will host the event on September 22-23, followed by Niger on September 25-26.

Between Africa and Turkey, a partnership that’s taking root

When the Turkish Republic came into being in 1923, Ankara cut itself off from the Middle East and Africa to look to the West and join NATO after 1945. The collapse of the Soviet Union, which put an end to the bipolarity of the Cold War, encouraged Turkey to reweave its own diplomatic web. As early as 1998, even before the AKP came to power, the Turkish authorities put in place an “Action Plan for an Opening to Africa”, to offer new perspectives to Turkey’s foreign policy, and, in the midst of globalization, to develop its economy”.

But it was really Recep Tayyip Erdogan who was to flesh out the links, giving of himself: with over 40 visits, sometimes two a year, he is the non-African leader who has visited the most states on the continent. In 2005, when he was Prime Minister, he launched the “Year of Africa”, a year ahead of China and five years ahead of France. Then, in 2008, the year of the first Africa-Turkey summit, he launched the “Strategic Partnership with the African Union”, with Ankara playing an observer role. Relations have been forged with ECOWAS and IGAD, but the emphasis is on bilateral relations.

In 15 years, Turkey’s network of embassies in Africa has grown from 12 to 44. Ankara is now also home to 37 African embassies. In December 2021, still in the midst of a health crisis, no fewer than 16 African heads of state and over 100 ministers from the continent travel to Istanbul for the third Africa-Turkey summit.

Remittances from migrants – top 10 recipient countries in Africa

Remittances from migrants – top 10 recipient countries in Africa: Global migrant remittances rose in 2022, according to the latest World Bank report. Internationally, remittances totaled $647 billion, up 8%. In Africa, however, the increase was only 2.63%, to 97.5 billion dollars. Egypt remains by far the largest recipient of these flows. Transfer costs are still very high.

Remittances from migrants in Africa: Analysis 2022

On the African continent, diaspora remittances totaled $97.5 billion, up 2.63% on 2021. However, these figures need to be put into perspective. Many migrant remittances, particularly from sub-Saharan African countries, are channeled through informal channels and are therefore not taken into account in the official statistics of banks, exchange offices and central banks. These data are therefore somewhat biased.

By region, remittances to North African countries (Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Djibouti) totaled $44.5 billion, compared with $46 billion a year earlier, down 4.02%, mainly due to the decline in remittances from Egyptian migrants. Transfers to sub-Saharan Africa totaled $53 billion, up 6.1% on the previous year.

Remittances from migrants – top 10 recipient countries in Africa

Egypt & Nigeria in the lead

In terms of the major recipient countries of remittances, there were no notable changes. Egypt, Africa’s third most populous country and home to a diaspora of over 10 million souls, remains the continent’s biggest recipient of remittances. This volume stood at $28.3 billion, down 11.31% on 2021, when it reached a record $31.5 billion. Egypt alone accounts for 29% of migrants’ remittances to the continent.

As the country’s second-largest source of foreign currency after exports this year, remittances contribute to the country’s foreign exchange reserves and improve the current account balance. These transfers represented the equivalent of 8.1% of Egypt’s Gross Domestic Product.

In addition, these transfers also help to alleviate the situation of the Egyptian population, which has been hard hit by the effects of the global economic crisis following the Covid-19 crisis, and above all by the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war and its effects on inflation, which has reduced the purchasing power of Egyptians.

Nigeria was a distant second, with remittances of $20.1 billion, down 3.3% on the previous year. Here too, the size of the diaspora plays a major role. As Africa’s most populous country, we have a large community abroad, particularly in the major Anglo-Saxon countries (UK, USA and Canada), estimated at over 17 million souls. During the period under review, the diaspora transferred $20.1 billion. Remittances from Nigerian migrants represent 38% of total remittance flows in sub-Saharan Africa.

Remittances from migrants – top 10 recipient countries in Africa

Behind these two demographically significant countries comes Morocco, whose diaspora remittances reached $11.2 billion, compared with $10.4 billion in 2021, an increase of 7.70%. The Kingdom ranks 3rd among recipients of remittances in Africa, thanks to its diaspora estimated at over 5.5 million souls, equivalent to 15% of the Moroccan population. This diaspora is very attached to its origins, and its remittances have a significant economic and social impact. These transfers, facilitated by the presence of Moroccan banks in countries where a large part of the diaspora lives (France, Spain, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, etc.), represented the equivalent of 6.6% of the country’s GDP in 2022.

Behind this trio come Ghana (4.7 billion dollars), Kenya (4.1), Tunisia (3.1), Zimbabwe (3.1), Senegal (2.5), Algeria (1.8) and DR Congo (1.7).

Top 10 African countries receiving remittances

CountryTransfers in 2022Change 2022/2021Transfers/GDP
Egypt28,30 billions of dollars-11,31 %8,1 %
Nigeria20,10 billions of dollars-3,30 %
Morocco11,20 billions of dollars+7,70 %6,6 %
Ghana4,7 billions of dollars+11,9 %6,4 %
Kenya4,1 billions of dollars+8,5 %
Tunisia3,1 billions of dollars10 %6,0 %
Zimbabwe3,1 billions of dollars9,3 %
Senegal2,5 billions of dollars-7,41 %9,1 %
Algéria1,8 billions of dollars0 %0,9 %
DR Congo1,7 billions of dollars+30,77 %

Transfer costs

Lastly, despite requests from multilateral financial and development institutions and receiving countries, transfer costs to Africa remain high. In North Africa and the Middle East, the cost of a $200 transfer to the region averaged 6.2% in Q4 2022. In sub-Saharan Africa, the average cost was 8% over the same period.

The Algerian president’s visit to Russia or a splash in the water!

The Algerian president’s visit to Russia or a splash in the water: On Tuesday June 13, 2023, the Algerian president began a three-day state visit to Russia, “at the invitation of his counterpart Vladimir Putin”.

The Algerian president’s visit to Russia, or a splash in the water!

In reality, this low-key trip – rather like the one to Portugal, where he was greeted by egg-throwing – is more a working visit to Russia by the oldest Muppet in the Muppets Show made in Algeria. It’s good to know that Putin has not reserved an agenda for his so-called “protégé” to make this “convocation” a state visit.

That said, Tebboune will first travel to St. Petersburg to take part in the International Economic Forum being held there from June 14 to 17, before perhaps being welcomed by the master of the Kremlin. According to the official blablabla from Algiers, “this visit will be an opportunity for the two countries to strengthen their cooperation in a difficult international context”.

It’s no secret that Algiers and Moscow have long enjoyed privileged relations. And with good reason: trade between the two countries – excluding arms and military cooperation – is in the region of three billion dollars, and is largely based on the mechanical engineering, metallurgy and agri-food sectors.

Military cooperation

Military cooperation, of course, is not to be outdone. Moscow is a major arms supplier. Indeed, in military terms, international reports indicate that Algeria is the world’s third largest importer of Russian weapons, while Moscow is considered to be the Algerian army’s leading supplier of weapons and military systems, accounting for over 50%. However, contrary to all expectations, military “cooperation” will not be on the agenda at this meeting, if it is to be held at all.

The Algerian head of state having accepted Vladimir Putin’s invitation to meet him at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum, a multilateral setting where it is highly doubtful that the Russian President will be able to devote himself exclusively to the senile man from Algiers. This, despite the fact that the latter is one of the very few heads of state to take part in the St. Petersburg economic forum.

Visit without protocols: Putin belittles Tebboune

In the worst-case scenario, Putin and his Algerian counterpart are expected to take stock of bilateral relations and sign a number of minor agreements, notably within the framework of the famous “in-depth strategic cooperation” between the two countries. This was announced several months ago with great fanfare. Algeria and Russia will be taking this step at a complicated geopolitical juncture for the Russians, due to the conflict with Ukraine, and to Algiers’ great displeasure, there will be little talk of any military equipment procurement.

In short, this visit, which Algiers has been preparing since 2021 to sign a “new historic partnership” – a renewal, as it were, of the “declaration of strategic cooperation” by which Algiers and Moscow have been linked since 2001 – is a splash in the water. Indeed, these agreements encompass a whole (economy, defense, etc.), yet the military side, the big slice of the cake, is obscured, all the more so as the Economic Forum in which Algiers is taking part is a global one, and does not address Algeria exclusively, being in this respect a multilateral framework.

Curiously, this little tour et puis s’en va, this visit or even this convocation, which was scheduled for May, has been postponed until June, rather like the one that the senile man from Algiers was due to make in France. Except that the latter has once again been postponed indefinitely. According to press reports, the Algiers-Paris trip is “under discussion between the two parties to find a suitable date”.

Terrorism Threats in Africa

Terrorism Threats in Africa: Africa is a continent that has been plagued by terrorism for many years. In recent years, the threat of terrorism has increased, with a number of countries facing significant challenges.

Terrorism Threats in Africa

There are a number of reasons for the increase in terrorism in Africa. One reason is the rise of Islamic extremism. In recent years, there has been a growing number of Islamic extremist groups operating in Africa. These groups are often motivated by a desire to establish Islamic states in Africa.

Another reason for the increase in terrorism in Africa is the political instability in a number of countries. In countries where there is political instability, it is easier for terrorist groups to operate. This is because the governments in these countries are often weak and unable to effectively combat terrorism.

The threat of terrorism in Africa has a number of negative consequences. It can lead to violence, instability, and economic hardship. It can also make it difficult for people to travel and do business in Africa.

Leading countries in Africa in the fight againts terrorism

There are a number of countries in Africa that are leading the fight against terrorism. These countries are working to improve their security forces, strengthen their border security, and work with international partners to combat terrorism.

Some of the leading countries in combating terrorism in Africa include:

Kenya: Kenya has been a target of terrorism attacks in recent years. The Kenyan government has responded by strengthening its security forces and working with international partners to combat terrorism.

Morocco: Morocco has been successful in combating terrorism. The Moroccan government has a strong security force and has worked to improve its border security.

Nigeria: Nigeria is facing a significant threat from Boko Haram, an Islamic extremist group. The Nigerian government has responded by launching a military campaign against Boko Haram.

The countries that are leading the fight against terrorism in Africa are making progress. However, the threat of terrorism remains. It is important for these countries to continue to work together to combat terrorism and protect their citizens.

Challenges in combating terrorism

  • Lack of resources: Many African countries lack the resources to effectively combat terrorism. This includes a lack of funding, training, and equipment.
  • Political instability: In some African countries, the political instability makes it difficult to effectively combat terrorism. This is because the governments in these countries are often weak and unable to effectively coordinate a response to terrorism.
  • Public support: In some African countries, there is a lack of public support for the fight against terrorism. This is because some people in these countries sympathize with the terrorists or believe that the government is overreacting to the threat of terrorism.

Despite these challenges, there are a number of things that can be done to combat terrorism in Africa. These include:

  • Improving security forces: African countries need to improve the training and equipment of their security forces. This will help them to be more effective in preventing and responding to terrorist attacks.
  • Strengthening border security: African countries need to strengthen their border security to prevent terrorists from entering and operating in their countries.
  • Working with international partners: African countries need to work with international partners to share intelligence and coordinate their response to terrorism.
  • Building public support: African countries need to build public support for the fight against terrorism. This can be done by educating the public about the threat of terrorism and by ensuring that the government’s response to terrorism is fair and just.

By addressing these challenges and taking these steps, African countries can combat terrorism and protect their citizens.

The history of the global economy will be written in Africa according to the US Treasury

The history of the global economy will be written in Africa according to the US Treasury: Faced with Chinese competition in Africa, the US Treasury has no shortage of arguments to make up for lost time in the economic arena.

The history of the global economy will be written in Africa according to the US Treasury

African demographics: an asset? While growth in sub-Saharan Africa continues to slow down, weighing on poverty reduction targets in many countries, according to the World Bank’s latest economic outlook, published on June 7, the United States wants to turn the strong demographic growth of sub-Saharan countries into a strength.

A senior US Treasury official has declared that demographic trends mean that American business leaders will be looking to Africa and South Asia over the coming decades. These comments come against a backdrop of fierce competition between the various powers – China, the United States and Russia.

A population set to double

Jay Shambaugh, Undersecretary for International Affairs at the U.S. Treasury, argued that the U.S. was a more attractive financing option than China for the region’s states. “The growth is pretty clear,” he said Wednesday at a conference in Washington. “The story of the global economy over the next 50 years will be written in sub-Saharan Africa.”

According to the World Bank, the population of sub-Saharan Africa will almost double in the next thirty years, with rapid growth in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania, for example. This region alone will contribute half of the world’s growth by 2050.

Beating China to the punch

After years of disinterest, his successor, President Joe Biden, is bending over backwards to make up for lost time. Since the beginning of the year, more than five officials have already been dispatched to the continent, including Vice President Kamala Harris, US Ambassador to the United Nations Linda Thomas-Greenfield, Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen, First Lady Jill Biden and Secretary of State Antony Blinken.

On the ground, Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen has made every effort to revive ties on the continent and counter Beijing’s influence. She has pushed for progress in debt restructuring talks with several countries in crisis, including Zambia. In recent years, efforts to restructure the debts of low-income countries have been hampered by disagreements between traditional creditors like the Paris Club – mainly wealthy Western countries – and new entrants like China – the biggest lender to developing economies.

For Jay Shambaugh, “China’s presence in the region’s countries sometimes suggests that international financial institutions and foreign direct investment have not provided sufficient funds. But if you ask them what they prefer if both options are on the table, I’d say our offer is the best,” he said, indicating that “the United States has a lot to offer” to the countries south of the Sahara. As US-China competition intensifies, how will African countries balance their relations with these two world powers?

Africa CEO Forum – The quest for champions for tomorrow’s economy

Africa CEO Forum – The quest for champions for tomorrow’s economy: 1,800 top business leaders, heads of state and government, business leaders in the broadest sense of the term: the Africa CEO Forum, the continent’s largest private sector gathering, opened in Abidjan on June 5, 2023 (Hotel Ivoire). Discussions will focus on the emergence of future economic champions in Africa.

Africa CEO Forum – The quest for champions of tomorrow’s economy

Côte d’Ivoire plays host to Africa’s annual private sector rave for two days, with 2,000 public and private decision-makers in attendance. The region’s economic powerhouse is enjoying stronger growth and lower inflation than its neighbors. The $3.5 billion plan recently granted by the IMF should also encourage investment.

As our correspondant, points out, African economies, with their very disparate situations, must not miss the train of global restructuring. The countries of the South certainly have their cards to play. What’s needed are companies capable of carrying out large-scale projects, like Nigeria’s Dangote Group.

There are around 300 companies on the continent with sales in excess of one billion dollars. That’s ten times more than in Europe or Asia. It’s a question of economic sovereignty and strategic autonomy. In agriculture, energy and digital technology, we need national champions with global reach. The private and public sectors will therefore be looking for solutions together at this 2023 edition of the Africa CEO Forum.

It was against this backdrop that the ceremony was opened on Monday by Makhtar Diop of the International Finance Corporation, a World Bank organization dedicated to the private sector. He recalled the continental economic context, with a difficult post-Covid recovery, high inflation and falling investment.

Continental integration in focus

The Prime Minister of Côte d’Ivoire then took the podium. He congratulated his country on its good results. The PM recalled the extreme youth of the Ivorian population, which can be “our greatest asset, if we invest”. He stressed the importance of the close relationship between the State and the private sector for Africa’s development, and the need for continental integration to rationalize and strengthen value chains.

This is the whole project of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), but it suffered a serious setback at the time of the Covid-19 pandemic. “Now the countries themselves have to be sufficiently productive. But the second problem is, once again, infrastructure and transport logistics.”

The AfDB estimates that $170 billion a year is needed to invest in the various infrastructures that would enable a continuous flow to a unified African market. The continent is still a long way from achieving this. But Tahirou Barry, Financial Director for Ports and Terminals at African Global Logistics, remains optimistic: “States, development aid institutions and private operators are mobilizing to develop this infrastructure sector. AfCFTA is a reality, since the treaty signed in 2018 is in force, so we’re talking about a unified market. The objective today is to see how we can unleash the potential to enable Africans to trade.” The demand is there, and it’s not likely to stop growing in the coming years. By 2050, the continent alone will account for 2.5 billion consumers.

Finally, Monday June 5 also marked International Environment Day, which is taking place in Abidjan. The two speakers, Makhtar Diop and Patrick Achi, recalled that Africa was “the only continent that has not experienced its green revolution”. Both called for environmentally-friendly and sustainable economic development.

Internal Trade in Africa – The Key to Economic Growth and Development

Internal Trade in Africa – The Key to Economic Growth and Development: Africa is a vast and diverse continent with a population of over 1.2 billion people. It is also a continent with a long history of trade and commerce. In recent years, there has been a growing focus on developing internal trade within Africa. This is seen as a key to economic growth and development on the continent.

Internal Trade in Africa – The Key to Economic Growth and Development

There are a number of reasons why internal trade is important for Africa. First, it can help to reduce poverty. When people are able to trade their goods and services within their own countries, they can earn more money and improve their standard of living. Second, internal trade can help to create jobs. When there is more trade, there is a need for more people to produce and transport goods and services. Third, internal trade can help to boost economic growth. When people are able to buy and sell goods and services within their own countries, they are more likely to spend money and invest in businesses.

There are a number of challenges to developing internal trade in African continent. One challenge is the lack of infrastructure. Many African countries have poor roads, railways, and ports. This makes it difficult and expensive to transport goods and services. Another challenge is the lack of trade agreements. Many African countries have different trade policies, which makes it difficult for businesses to trade across borders. Added to this, the low rate of penetration of Internet in Africa.

Leaders countries in Africa

Despite these challenges, there are a number of countries in Africa that are making progress in developing internal trade. Some of the leading countries in internal trade in Africa include:

  • South Africa: South Africa is the largest economy in Africa and has a well-developed infrastructure. The country has a number of free trade agreements with other African countries.
  • Nigeria: Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and has a large domestic market. The country is also a major producer of oil and gas, which provides a source of income for the government to invest in infrastructure and trade.
  • Kenya: Kenya is a middle-income country with a growing economy. The country has a number of free trade agreements with other African countries and is a major producer of agricultural products.
  • Morocco: Morocco is a North African country with a well-developed infrastructure. The country has a number of free trade agreements with other African countries and is a major producer of agricultural products and textiles.

These are just a few of the countries in Africa that are making progress in developing internal trade. As more countries in Africa focus on developing internal trade, the continent will be well-positioned to achieve economic growth and development.

Benefits of internal trade in Africa

  • Reduces poverty: When people are able to trade their goods and services within their own countries, they can earn more money and improve their standard of living.
  • Creates jobs: When there is more trade, there is a need for more people to produce and transport goods and services.
  • Boosts economic growth: When people are able to buy and sell goods and services within their own countries, they are more likely to spend money and invest in businesses.

Challenges to developing internal trade in Africa

  • Lack of infrastructure: Many African countries have poor roads, railways, and ports. This makes it difficult and expensive to transport goods and services.
  • Lack of trade agreements: Many African countries have different trade policies, which makes it difficult for businesses to trade across borders.
  • Political instability: Some African countries are politically unstable, which makes it difficult to attract investment and trade.

Internal Trade in Africa – The Key to Economic Growth and Development

Despite these challenges, there are a number of things that can be done to develop internal trade in Africa. These include:

  • Investing in infrastructure: African countries should invest in roads, railways, and ports to make it easier and cheaper to transport goods and services.
  • Negotiating trade agreements: African countries should negotiate trade agreements with each other to reduce tariffs and other barriers to trade.
  • Promoting trade: African countries should promote trade by providing information and support to businesses that want to trade with each other.

By addressing these challenges and taking these steps, African countries can develop internal trade and boost economic growth and development on the continent.